This is known as the Tower of London, the Royal Castle, and the Landmark of London. Its buildings and grounds have historically served as a royal palace, a political prison, a killing field, an armory, a royal mint, a manager, and a public records office. It is located on the north bank of the River Thames, on the west end of Tower Hamlets, bordering central London.
The first part of the fort, the White Tower (middle right), was built in the 11th century and was later raised by four cupolas. The Gate of the Traitors (center left) dates back to the 13th century.
After the coronation (Christmas 1066), fortifications began to be built on the site to dominate the aboriginal trading community and to control access to the upper pool of London. The central storehouse, known as the White Tower of the 19th century, dates back to around 1078, within the walls of the ancient Roman city, and was built of limestone from Cain in Normandy. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the forts stretched beyond the city wall, and the White Tower became the nucleus of a series of concentric defenses around an inner and outer ward.
St. Thomas’ Tower and the Treacherous Gate are located near the entrance to London Tower. A political prisoner was taken through the gate to be imprisoned for a long time or to be executed. It is usually carried in public.
The inner “screen” has 13 towers around the White Tower, the most prominent of which are Bloody Tower, Beauchamp Tower and Wakefield Tower. The outer screen is surrounded by a moat, originally fed by the Thames, but has been drained since 1843. The wall outside the moat has elbows for artillery. Other than that, modern artillery pieces are traditionally used for firing on state occasions. The entire complex of buildings covers 18 acres (7 hectares). The only entrance from the land is at the southwest corner of the city. While the river was still a major highway in London, the watergate was widely used in the 13th century. Its nickname, Traitor’s Gate, is derived from the prisoners brought to the tower through it. It was used as a government prison for a long time. The armory now houses the White Tower, as well as a later 17th-century brick building, houses weapons from the Middle Ages to the Modern Age. Much of this collection, which is administered as the Royal Arsenal, was moved to a new museum site in Leeds in 1996.
The tower was a royal residence until the 17th century, and from the 13th century until 1834, it was maintained by the Royal Manager (Lion Tower). During the Middle Ages, the Tower of London became a prison and death penalty for politically related crimes. Many slaves were publicly killed in Tower Greene or Tower Hill outside the palace. Among those killed were Sir Simon Burley (c. 1388), a mentor and adviser to Richard II, Edmund Dudley (1510), Thomas Moore (1535), philanthropist, Henry VIII’s second wife, Anne Boleyn (1536), and Jane Grey. , Lord Guildford Dudley (1554), Simon Fraser (1747), 11th Lord Lovatt, a Scottish Jacobite leader. Also, during World War I, several spies were shot dead. Suspected conspirators were Princess Elizabeth (later Elizabeth I) and other notable detainees. Among them is the adventurous Sir Walter Riley, Sir Roger Casement, who was arrested on a charge of treason during World War I.
Until 1994, the British Crown Jewelry and Regalia were housed in the Underground Jewelry House. They now keep them in a more spacious underground facility. Renovations were made in various parts of the tower during the 1990s, especially in the central apartments of Wakefield and St. Thomas’ Towers.
Inside the tower is a military fort, whose territory has “freedom” outside the jurisdiction of the local courts. It is always held by a constable on behalf of the Sovereign. There is a resident governor who lives in the Queen’s House in Tower Greene in the 16th century, and is in charge of the youth wards, popularly known as the “Beefeaters.” They still wear Tudor uniforms and live in the tower, and their responsibilities include guided tours for the tower’s two million to three million annual visitors. There are also crows here. According to the tradition of King Charles II (reigned 1660-85), if the raven left the tower, the fort and the kingdom would collapse. Tower Bridge near the Tower (1894) is the only central city bridge across the Thames below London Bridge. The fort was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988.