Tintern Abbey is one of the largest ruins in Wales. It is the second Cistercian base in Britain and the first in Wales. It was founded on May 9, 1131, by Walter de Claire, governor of Chepstow. Thanks to donations of land in Gwent and Gloucestershire, the buildings were collected and updated every century until it was dismantled in 1536. However, it was never large and important, and its history was relatively unequal. Its location far from the heart of Wales meant that, unlike Magam, Neith and Lantoni, it suffered little during the Middle Ages in Wales.
Tintern was always closely associated with the lords of Chepstow, often generous philanthropists. The most generous was Roger Bigod III, Maud’s grandson, Marshall’s daughter. He was responsible for the restoration of the church in the late 13th century. In gratitude, Abbey placed his coat on the glass of its east window. Today the site is dominated by the ruins of Roger’s Church.
Although the Abbey buildings are typical of a Cistercian layout, it is common for its cluster and all its adjoining buildings to be north of the church, not to the south. Consideration of practical considerations such as drainage may have led to this reversal. The present building is a collection of several stages of construction over a period of 400 years but remained the same throughout the original arrangement.
Very little remains of the earliest buildings from the 12th century. Several sections of the walls have been incorporated into later buildings, and the two bookshelves on the east side belong to this period. The church was smaller than the 13th century and was slight to the north. The later church has its cross plan on gravel roads and stone edges. Built on the first floor in the late 12th century, the monk’s dormitory was extended from the north corner of the church to the north. The toilets at its northern end and above the drain to the east are the ones set up at this stage.
During the 13th century (beginning around 1220), the abbey was largely completely renovated, with the surrounding interiors and the Great Church completed. Through the late 13th-century porch and outer hall, the entrance to the courtyard was on the west side. (The modern entrance to the monastery faces north.) Upstairs was a small lodge. Maybe it’s for the store. To the north was the basement and lodge and lodge of the laity ‘brethren extended in the late 13th century.
Its great church, the crown jewel of Tintin, was built between 1269-1301. It still exists today, except for the roof, the window glass, and the lack of interior partitions. The Great Cistercian of Fountains and Revolutions are not as large as Abbey’s Church. It has a simple cross plan and a ship. Each of them is joined by two churches and a chandelier with a gap at the corner. Internal divisions were dictated by the Cistercian rule and religious rites, and they disappeared. The interiors were all made of walls, and three cross walls divided the body of the church into two main parts. That is, ships are reserved for the laity, and the choir and priesthood at the east end are reserved for the monks. Shrubs can be seen in the interstitial walls against the pillars. Aesthetic simplicity today may be more pleasing than the original chaos. This was the intent of removing the Victorian main cross wall or pulse. The inner wall surface is divided into cluster columns and exposed to a bay, above which is the Trinity vault.
The delicate west corner is divided into three stages, with two doors and an arch below, a large seven-window window in the center (left), and a small arched window that loses its arch above. The slightest particle of the main window, except for the circle at the top, is especially visible from inside the church. In stark contrast, the east corner wall has a large window that takes up most of the space and is simply a gaping hole. All that remains are the thin central root and the rounded window at the top.
The main Tintern Abbey buildings were located within the wall within 11 hours, and there were many other secular buildings within them. The remains of some, including the guesthouse, have been found on the west side of the church, between the car park and the main road. The arch of the waterway with the dock and the ferry across the river remains near the Anchor Hotel, and the Gate House Church, clearly visible above the main road, has been converted into a private home. Parts of the wall are on the west and south, parts are in ruins and parts are embedded in the garden walls.
In 1348 the Black Death spread across the country, and although we have no direct evidence of Tintin’s effect, it is clear that it had an effect. Recruiting new recruits for the secular fraternity is almost impossible. As the feudal service allowed for a wage-based system, the vast changes in the economy increased due to the post-epidemic labor shortage. In 1387-88 Mount Methirgarh was leased to many tenants who had previously worked for the lay brethren.
Priestly life in England and Wales in the 1500s was abruptly ended by the political activities of King Henry VIII. The dissolution of the monasteries was part of the king’s policy of establishing full control over the church in the king’s kingdom. But in addition to severing ties with Rome, their repression was a significant source for the crown. Nevertheless, between 1536 and 1540, the inhuman demise of some 800 religious houses was a major step forward. Perhaps it was easier because of the different opinions about the monasteries and what stood for them. Certainly, by the time of the Tudor dynasty, the freshness and vigor of clerical life had largely disappeared.